By D.I. Dalgleish
The purpose of this ebook is to offer a transparent and concise exposition of the foundations and perform of satellite tv for pc communications through describing the improvement of communications-satellite providers. it is going to be helpful either to engineers who've labored in different fields of telecommunication and to scholars.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Satellite Communications
As there are relatively few Standard-C stations, it is essential that INTELSAT satellites have the ability to interconnect stations working at 6/4 GHz and stations working at 14/11 GHz; this is known as cross-strapping. The satellites therefore convert all transmissions received (whether at 6 GHz or 14 GHz) to the 4 GHz band; any transmissions intended for Standard-C stations are subsequently up-converted to 11 GHz. 5 The development of satellite communications INTELSAT VA The main difference between INTELSAT V and INTELSAT VA satellites is the addition to the latter of down-path spot-beam antennas working at 4 GHz; these antennas use the same reflectors as the 14/11 GHz spot-beam antennas and produce beams with a diameter of about 5°.
VSAT systems frequently use error-correction or spread-spectrum techniques to achieve the required performance and to reduce interference to and from other systems; they therefore tend to use a lot of bandwidth, as well as a lot of satellite power. 11) may mean that more bandwidth will become available for the use of VSAT systems. INTELSAT offers two VSAT services: INTELNETI which is a data-distribution service and INTELNETII which is a data-gathering service. Many services require communication in both directions but the information flow in one of the directions may be very small and it may be more economical to use ordinary terrestrial communications systems in this direction.
The system is equally suited to the distribution of documents or data from any large central office to outlying offices and particular packages can be addressed to specific offices or groups of offices. The development of VSAT systems is in danger of being stifled in many countries (particularly in Europe) by licensing and regulatory procedures. These procedures, devised in the days when satellite systems comprised only a few earth stations, may prove very slow and restrictive when applied to networks comprising hundreds or even thousands of stations.