By Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic
If you happen to had a responsible technique for identifying the healthiest and so much doable conceptus from a cohort of transforming into preembryos, changing greater than a unmarried one that allows you to in achieving solid being pregnant charges will be moot. someday within the not-so-distant destiny, this can be a truth. Taking a step in the direction of that destiny, An Atlas of Human Blastocysts vividly illustrates the common and unusual morphology of mammalian blastocysts. The atlas demonstrates that prolonged tradition of blastocysts is now conceivable within the laboratory and issues us towards the day whilst will probably be attainable to choose from a couple of fit hatched blastocysts.
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Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet 1978; 2:366 2. Hughes EG, Fedorkow DM, Daya S, Sagle MA, Van de Koppel P, Collins JA. The routine use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists prior to in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Fertil Steril 1992; 58:888–96 3. Sathananthan AH, Trounson A, Wood C, eds. Atlas of Fine Structure of Human Sperm Penetration, Eggs, and Embryos Cultured In Vitro. New York: Praeger, 1986:2 (penetration of immature oocytes), 4 (chromosomes and spindle microtubules), 10 (cortical granules), 42, 126 (oocyte aging), 90 (polar body nucleus) 4.
In contrast, Van den Bergh and associates93 showed that, in patients who conceived following blastocyst transfer, embryos had a significantly lower glycolytic activity than those embryos which did not establish a pregnancy. Significantly, in the work of Van den Bergh and associates93, a complete medium was used for the metabolic assessment, thereby alleviating the culture-induced stress associated with the work of Jones and colleagues92. More recently, two studies have determined the relationship between embryo nutrition and subsequent development in vitro94,95.
One of the cellular processes affected by suboptimal culture conditions, energy metabolism, has been shown to be a useful marker of embryo normalcy in vitro. Furthermore, energy metabolism may also be used to identify the most viable embryo from within a given cohort for transfer. It is therefore the aim of this chapter not only to review the nutrient requirements and energy metabolism of the mammalian preimplantation embryo, but also to put energy metabolism into a meaningful context with regard to embryo development, culture and viability assessment.