By N. Simons, B. Menzies, M. Matthews
This new addition to the 'Short direction' sequence combines either soil and rock slope engineering - in influence, brief classes - in a single concise quantity. Like its acclaimed spouse quantity a brief path in origin Engineering, this publication makes a speciality of the necessities, explaining uncomplicated equipment of balance research and utilizing them to a variety of useful functions
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Additional info for A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering
Thus for cuts, long term or `drained' strengths must be used and this can be predicted in terms of effective stress using the Terzaghi±Coulomb equation: sd cH ÿ u tan H 2:4 provided the long term pore water pressures are known (they normally are because the ground water regime, initially disturbed by the construction activity, has regained a steady state). For foundations, however, critical stability is in the short term because the strength increases with consolidation in the long term.
No knowledge of the pore pressures is required, the undrained shear strength being used in a total stress analysis. Shear test data applicable to the unloading condition The unloading case gives a critical stability condition in the long term, the minimum strength and lowest factor of safety occurring some considerable time after the end of unloading or construction. It may be readily seen that the long term case approximates to a drained condition in that the pore pressure reduction generated by the unloading is gradually redistributed to the equilibrium pore pressures determined by the steady state ground water levels.
2. 21 strengths intermediate between the triaxial extension and compression tests. Bjerrum (1972) found that using the undrained shear strength measured by the vane in a conventional limit analysis gave varying estimates of the actual stability depending on the plasticity of the clay. The disparity between su field and su vane may be partly accounted for by the combined effects of anisotropy and testing rate. The correlation su field su vane kv for soft clays is given in Fig. 11. Time to undrained failure As demonstrated by Bjerrum, Simons and Torblaa (1958), the greater the time to undrained failure, the lower will be undrained strength (Fig.