By Mukul Sarkar
Biological structures are a resource of idea within the improvement of small independent sensor nodes. the 2 significant different types of optical imaginative and prescient structures present in nature are the one aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the so much compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible method of bugs permits them to fly with a constrained intelligence and mind processing energy. A CMOS photograph sensor replicating the belief of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this e-book for business (machine imaginative and prescient) and clinical purposes.
The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer in a position to experience polarization info. This polarization info is proven to be valuable in purposes like genuine time fabric type and independent agent navigation. extra the sensor is provided with in pixel analog and electronic thoughts which permit version of the dynamic variety and in-pixel binarization in actual time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to copy the flickering impression of the insect’s eye to observe smallest attainable movement in response to the switch in country. An built in counter counts the adjustments in states for every row to estimate the course of the movement. The chip involves an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS method from UMC.
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Extra info for A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor
This function changes differentially over time. 9 denotes a subset of the plenoptic function at a given time which can be captured by an imaging device. The plenoptic function is described in more detail is chapter 7. Fig. 9 Diagram of optical “pyramids” from Leonardo’s notebook  In the conventional imaging approach using a single pinhole camera, only one of the pyramids in its field of view is visible and thus forms a single image. A singleaxis lens focuses an image on the focal plane of the image sensor, the resolution of which is determined by the size of the optical window.
These photoreceptors are preferentially sensitive to a specific e-vector direction due to their strong dipole moment. They are maximally excited when the electrical vector (e-vector) axis is parallel to the dipole axis. In vertebrates, these photoreceptors are oriented perpendicular to the paths of the incoming light rays, presenting a random array and thus are typically insensitive to polarized light. In invertebrates, the photoreceptors are aligned parallel to the microvillar axis. Thus if all microvilli of a single photoreceptor cell are parallel, the cell will respond most strongly to incoming polarized light with its e-vector aligned parallel to the microvillus, thus exhibiting polarization sensitive behavior .
2. When light is incident on a semiconductor, it may be reflected, absorbed or transmitted. The energy of the absorbed light particles (photons) forces the electrons to excite from the valence band into the conduction band when the absorbed energy is higher than the energy gap, thus producing electron-hole pairs. 124eV at 300°K, which corresponds to a light wavelength of λ=1050nm. 77eV. 124 eV Light EV Fig. 1) where ni is the number of thermally excited electrons, h is the Plank’s constant, k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is the absolute temperature, Eg is the band gap energy and me is the effective mass of the electron.